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I vasti campi della biometeorologia e della bioclimatologia medica sono stati oggetto di lunghe e serrate indagini con la specifica finalità di accertare e chiarire i molteplici rapporti intercorrenti tra il tempo, il clima e la salute umana. Un esempio che costituisce ancora oggi oggetto privilegiato di approfonditi studi ci è dato da El Nino (ed il suo opposto, la Nina), fenomenologia climatica a vasta scala ciclicamente ricorrente nel Pacifico equatoriale australe, che sta alla base di caratteristici effetti facendo sentire la sua enorme influenza in aree anche molto lontane dal luogo di origine del fenomeno, con svariati e precisi impatti sulla salute umana che sono stati e continuano ad essere osservati con molta attenzione.
Di seguito si intende fornire un quadro generale, seppur in parte sintetico, della vasta e proteiforme produzione scientifica generata da parecchi decenni a livello internazionale in questi settori. L’informazione bibliografica viene presentata sia nella sua forma generale sia in quella specialistica, ed ha quale suo obiettivo principale quello di fornire un'informazione articolata specilmente destinata alla classe Medica in particolare ed agli operatori sanitari in generale.




Bibliografia sistema cardio-vascolare

Zheng D, Hisatomi Arima H, Sato S, Gasparrini A, Heeley E, Delcourt C, Lo S, Huang Y, Wang J, Stapf C, Robinson T, Lavados P, Chalmers J,  Anderson CS. Low Ambient Temperature and Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The INTERACT2 Study. Plos One. 2016; DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0149040 February 9

Gasparrini A, Guo Y, Hashizume M, Lavigne E, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J, et al. Mortality risk attributable to high and low ambient temperature: a multicountry observational study. Lancet. 2015; 386(9991): 369–7

Anderson CS, Heeley E, Huang Y, Wang J, Stapf C, Delcourt C, et al. Rapid blood-pressure lowering in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2013; 368(25): 2355–65

Chen Q, Wang J, Tian J, Tang X, Yu  C, Marshall RJ, Chen D, Cao W, Zhan S, Lv  J, Lee L, Hu Y Association between ambient temperature and blood pressure and blood pressure regulators: 1831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years. PLoS One. 2013; Dec 31;8(12):e84522

 Bakal JA, -. Ezekowitz JA, Westerhout CM, Boersma E, Armstrong PW Association of global weather changes with acute coronary syndromes: gaining insights from clinical trials data, Int J Biometeorol. 2013; 57:401–408

Fang CW, Ma MC, Lin HJ, Chen CH. Ambient temperature and spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage: a cross-sectional analysis in Tainan, Taiwan. BMJ Open. 2012; 2(3)

Turin TC, Rumana N, Kita Y, Nakamura Y, Miura K, Ueshima H Ambient weather conditions and the onset of acute myocardial infarction: the consociation between triggering factors and conventional risk factors. J Cardiol.  2010; 55(2):283–284

Wolf K, Schneider A, Breitner S, von Klot S, Meisinger C, Cyrys J (Air temperature and the occurrence of myocardial infarction in Augsburg, Germany. Circulation. 2009; 120(9):735–742

Dawson J, Weir C, Wright F, Bryden C, Aslanyan S, Lees K, et al. Associations between meteorological variables and acute stroke hospital admissions in the West of Scotland. Acta Neurol Scand. 2008; 117(2): 85–89

Morabito  M, Modesti PA, Cecchi L, Crisci A, Orlandini S Maracchi G, Gensini GF Relationships between weather and myocardial infarction: a biometeorological approach. Int J Cardiol. 2005; 105(3):288–293

Schwartz J, Samet JM, Patz JA. Hospital admissions for heart disease: the effects of temperature and humidity. Epidemiology. 2004; 15(6): 755–61

Keatinge WR,  Donaldson GC, Bucher K, Cordioli E, Dardanoni L, Jendritzky G, et al. Cold exposure and winter mortality from ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, and all causes in warm and cold regions of Europe. Lancet. 1997; 349(9062): 1341–1346

Anderson TW, Rochard C. Cold snaps, snowfall and sudden death from ischemic heart disease, Can Med Ass J. 1979; CXXI(12):1580-1583


Bibliografia apparato muscolo-scheletrico

Everett JT  Studies in relation to the production of pain by weather. Chicago Med J Exam 1879;38:253–60

Lawrence JS, Influence of weather and climate on rheumatic disease. Prog Biomet A. 1977;1(II):83–8

Patberg WR, Nienhuis RLF, Veringa F, Relation between meteorological factors and pain in rheumatoid arthritis in a marine climate. J Rheumatol 1985;12:711–5

Gorin AA, Smyth JM, Weisberg JN, Affleck G, Tennen H, Urrows S et al. Rheumatoid arthritis patients show weather sensitivity in daily life, but the relationship is not clinically significant. Pain .1999;81(1–2):173–7

Cimmino MA, Regional differences in the occurrence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis in Europe. CPD Rheumatol 1999;1(1):28–32

Verges J, Montell E, Tomas E, Cumelles G, Castaneda G, Marti N  et al. Weather conditions can influence rheumatic diseases. Proc West Pharmacol Soc.  2004;47:134–6

Smedslund G, Hagen KB. Does rain really cause pain? A systematic review of the associations between weather factors and severity of pain in people with rheumatoid arthritis. Eur J Pain. 2011; 15(1): 5-10

Bossema ER, van Middendorp H, Jacobs JW, Bijlsma JW, Geenen R (Influence of weather on daily symptoms of pain and fatigue in female patients with fibromyalgia: a multilevel regression analysis. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013; 65(7):1019–1025

de Blecourt AC, Knipping AA, de Voogd N, van Rijswijk MH Weather conditions and complaints in fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 1993; 20(11):1932–1934

Fors  EA, Sexton H, Weather and the pain in fibromyalgia: are they related? Ann Rheum Dis. 2002; 61(3):247–250

Smedslund G, Eide H, Kristjansdottir OB, Aparecida Gonçalves Nes A, Harold Sexton H, Fors E.A, Do weather changes influence pain levels in women with fibromyalgia, and can psychosocial variables moderate these influences?, Int J Biometeorol. 2014; 58:1451–1457


Bibliografia apparato utinario

Condemi V, Gestro M, Dozio E, Tartaglino T, Corsi Romanelli MM, Solimene U, Meco R Association  with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010. Int J Biometeorol. 2014; 59:249:263

Cervellin G, Comelli I, Comelli D, Cortellini P, Lippi G, Meschi T, Borghi L Mean temperature and humidity variations, along with patient age, predict the number of visits for renal colic in a large urban Emergency Department: Results of a 9-year survey.  Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health. 2012; 2:  31–38.

Fakheri  R. J. e Goldfarb D. S., Ambient temperature as a contributor to kidney stone formation: implications of global warming. Kidney international. 2011;79:1178-1185

Hermida Pérez JA, de La Paz Perez Palmes M,  Loro Ferrer JF, Ochoa Urdangarain O,  Buduen Nuñez A Renal colic at the emergency Departments. Epidemiologic, diagnostic and etiopathogenic study.   Arch. Esp. Urol.  2010; 63: 173-187

Boscolo-Berto R, Dal Moro M, Abate A, Arandjelovic G, Tosato F, Bassi P, Do weather conditions influence the onset of renal colic? A nouvel approach to analysis. Urol Int. 2008; 80:19-25

Brikowsky TH, Lotan Y, Pearle MS Climate-related increase in the prevalence of urolithiasis in the United States. PNAS.2008; 105:9841-9846

Association of Italian Urologists Guideline on Urinary Stones. 2007

Safarinejad MR Adult urolithiasis in a population-based study in Iran: prevalence, incidence, and associated risk factors. Urol Res. 2007; 35:73–82

Altan L, Andreoni C, Ortiz V, Koga E S, Pitta R, Atan F e Srougi M High Kidney stone risk in men working in steel industry at hot temperatures. Urology. 2005;  65: 858–861

Evans K, Costabile RA  Time to development of syntomatic urinary calculi in a high risk environmert. The Journal of Urology. 2005; 173:858–861

Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP  Effects of above average summer sun exposure on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium absorption, J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87:4952–4956

al-Hadramy MS  Seasonal variations of urinary stone colic in Arabia. J Pak Med Assoc. 1997; 47: 281–284.

Soucie JM, Coates RG, McClellan W, Austin H, Thun M Relation between geographic variability in kidney stones prevalence and risk factors for stones, American Journal of Epidemiology. 1996; 143:487-95

Borghi L, Ferretti PP, Elia GF et al. Epidemiological study of urinary tract stones in a northern Italian city. Br J Urol. 1990. 65:231–235

Hussain F, Billimoria FR, Singh PP  Urolithiasis in northeast Bombay: seasonal prevalence and chemical composition of stones. Int Urol Nephrol. 1990;  22: 119–124

Fujita K, Weather and the incidence of urinary stone colic in Tokyo. Int J Biomet. 1987; 31:141–146

Robertson WG, Peacock M, Marshall RW et al.  Seasonal variations in the composition of urine in relation to calcium stone-formation. Clin Sci Mol Med.  1975; 49: 597–602

Pierce LW et al. Observations on urolithiasis among American troops in a desert area. J Urol. 1945; 54: 466–476


Bibliografia sistema neurologico - psichiatria

Deisenhammer EA Weather and suicide: the present state of knowledge on the association of meteorological factors with suicidal behavior. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2003; 108: 402–409

Page LA,  Hajat S,  Sari Kovats R. Relationship between daily suicide counts and temperature in England and Wales. British Journal of Psichiatry. 2007; 191, 106-112

Butke P and Sheridan S An Analysis of the Relationship between Weather and Aggressive Crime in Cleveland, Ohio. American Meteorological Society. 2010; 2,127:139

Villeneuve PJ, Szyszkowicz M, Stieb D, Bourque DA Weather and emergency room visits for migraine headaches in Ottawa, Canada. Headache. 2006; 46:64-72

Kelman L The triggers or precipitants of the acute migraine attack. Cephalalgia. 2007; 27:394-402

Lilleng H and  Bekkelund S Seasonal variation in migraine in an Arctic population. Headache. 2009; 49:721-725

Messlinger K, Funakubo M, Sato J, Misumura K Increases in neuronal activity in rat spinal trigeminal nucleus following changes in barometric pressure -relevance for weather-associated head-aches? Headache.2010; 50:1449-1463

Yang AC, Fuh JL Huang NE, Shia BC, Peng CK, Wang SJ Temporal associations between weather and headache: analysis by empirical mode decomposition. PLoS ONE. 2011;. 6:e14612. doi: 0.1371/journal.pone.0014612

Ozeki K., Tatsuya Noda T., Mieko Nakamura M., Ojima T. Weather and headache onset: a large-scale study of headache medicine purchases. Int J Biomet, first online giugno 2014, in print.

Mazza M., Di Nicola M., Catalano V., Callea A., Martinotti G., Harnic  D., Bruschi A., Battaglia C., Janiri L., Description and validation of a questionnaire for the detection of meteoropathy and meteorosensitivity: the METEO-Q, Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2012;53: 103–106

Williams JB, Link MJ, Rosenthal NE. Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale—Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD) New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute. 1992.

Rosenthal N, Barbato G, Bonaveglio G, Le stagioni e la mente, Longanesi & C, 2001

Rohan K.J., Roecklein KA, Haaga DAF, Biological and psychological mechanisms of seasonal affective disorder: A review and integration. Curr Psychiatry Rev. 2009;5:37–47

Rohan KJ, Mahon JN, Evans M, Ho SY, Meyerhoff J, Postolache TT, Vacek M , Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Versus Light Therapy for Seasonal Affective Disorder: Acute Outcomes, Am J Psychiatry. 2015; Apr 10:appiajp201514101293. Epub ahead of print


Bibliografia storica onde di calore

Un elendo particolarmente esaustivo sulla produzione scientifica apparsa sull'argomento nell'ultimo ventennio (Center for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC).



  •  M. Villaret, L. Justin-Besancon."Clinique et therapeutique hydro-climatique", Masson et Cie Editeurs, 1932.
  • A cura di M. Piery. "Traitè de climatologie biologique et medicale", Tomi I, II e III.,  Masson et Cie Editeurs, 1934.
  • W. Kopaczewski."Essai de météoropathologie phisique, clinique, therapeutique", J. B. Bailliere & fils, 1939.
  • M. Messini."Trattato di Idroclimatologia", Cappeli Ed., 1953.
  • G. Picardi. "The chimical basis of medical climatology", Charles  C. Thomas Editore, 1962
  • S.W.Tromp. “Medical Biometeorology” Elsevier. 1963.
  • Autori vari."Medical Climatology", Sidney Licht, M.D, 1964.
  • R. Gualtierotti, L. Franceschetti."Clima e Tiroide, Industrie Grafiche Rosio Ed., 1964.
  • A cura di Mario Vergetti. "Opere di Ippocrate, Unione Tipografico Editrice Torinese, 1965.
  • MIchel Gauquellin."La santè et les conditions atmosphèriques", Hachette, 1967.
  • A.A.V.V. “Lacustrine Climatology”  Congresso Internazionale, 20-23 Maggio 1971. Como. Editori R. Gualtierotti e U. Solimene. 1971.
  • R. Gualtierotti, I. H. Kornblueh, C. Sirtori."Bioclimatology, biometeorology and aeroionotherapy", Carlo Erba Foundation Ed., 1971.
  • R. Gualtierotti, Bioclimatologia della collina, Medicina Termale e Climatologia, 10:91-100, 1971.
  • S.V. Tromp. "Biometeorological aspects of plants, trees and animals in human life" - Swets & Zeitlinger, 1972.
  • Office Francais de Reserches e Bioclimatologie e Société Météorologique de France. "Methodologie d'Etude de l'Environnement Biometeorologique de l'homme, Bioclima numero special n. 10, 1974.
  • “Proceedings of the WMO/IAMAP Symposium on LongTerm Climatic Fluctuations.
  • WMO-N°421 – 1975.
  • R. Gualtierotti. “Climatologia – Ecologia Medica” F. Lucisano. 1976.
  • “ Proceedings of The Meeting on Education and Training in Meteorological and Related Envirronmental Problems. WMO. N° 493. 1977.
  • H. H. Lamb.“ Climate:present, past  and  future”  Due volumi Methuen. 1978.
  • M. Pinna. “L’atmosfera  e il clima” Utet. 1978.
  • S.W. Tromp."Biometeorology", L.C. Thomas, 1980.
  • R. Gualtierotti. “Medicina Termale”  Lucisano – Milano – 1981
  • H. H. Lamb. “Climate history and the modern world” Methuen. 1982.
  • Tesi di Laurea in Medicina e Chirurgia. Anno accademico 1985-1986.
  • Relatore U. Solimene – Correlatore A. Brugnoli –
  • “ Infarti del miocardio ed ictus cerebri in relazione ai vortici di aria fredda in quota per il quinquennio 1981-1985 . Studio statistico” – Laureando  C. Ricca.
  • J.P. Besancenot, Les bioclimats humains en facade médeterranéenne de l'Europe. Etude géographique, Centre de Reserches Climatologique, Dijon, 1984..
  • J. R. Herman e  R. Goldberg. “ Sun, Wheather and Climate “ Dover. 1985.
  • W.O. Roberts e H. Lansford. “Il ruolo del clima” Zanichelli. 1985.
  • W. Selvamurthy. "Contribution to human biometeorology", SPB Academic Publishing, 1987.
  • F. Attali, “Meteoropatie” Xenia,1988.
  • C. C. Park. “ Piogge  acide “ Muzzio. 1989.
  • E. Goldschith e N. Hildyard." Il Rapporto Terra " Gremese.1989.
  • P. Stroppa.“ L ‘ effetto serra “ Il Castello.
  • J. C. Dragàn e St. Airinei.“Geoclimate and History” Nagard. 1989.
  • D. Camuffo. “ Clima e uomo “ Garzanti. 1990.
  • S. H. Schneider. “ L‘effetto  serra “. Geo. 1990.
  • J.P. Besancenot, Climat et Tourisme, Ed. Masson, Paris, 1990.
  • G. W. Canonica. “Inquinamento dell’aria e patologia umana” Folini. 1992.
  • C. M. Goodess, J. P. Palutikof, T.D. Davies.
  • “The nature and causes of climate change” Lewis Publishers. 1992.
  • F. Attali. “ Meteorologia e salute “ Oscar Mondadori. 1993.
  • I. Troen. “Climate Change and Climate Change Impacts” – Bruxelles. Comunità Europea. 1994
  • J. A.  McMichael, A. Haines, R. Sloof, S. Kovats editors.
  • “Climate change and Human Health”, WMO. WHO. UNEP. 1996.
  • G. Rotondo. Ecobioclimatologia - I, Istituto Italiano di Medicina Sociale Editore, 1997.
  • R. Gelbspan. “Clima rovente” Baldini e Castoldi. 1998.
  • U. Solimene, A. Brugnoli. Meteorologia e Climatologia Medica, Tempo, Clima e Salute, Edimed, 2000.
  • G. Rotondo. Ecobioclimatologia II, Istituto Italiano di Medicina Sociale Editore, 2001
  • N. Rosenthall, rivisto ed integrato da G.Barbato, G. Bonaveglio. "Le Stagioni e la Mente", Longanesi & C.,2002.
  • Besancenot J.P."Vagues de chaleur et mortalité dans les grandes agglomérations urbaines", Environ Risques Santé, 1:229–240, 2002.
  • WHO."Floods: climate change and adaptation strategies for human health" 2002.
  • A.J. McMichael, D.h: Campbell-Lendrum, C.F. Corvalan, K.L. Ebi, A. Githeko, J.D. Scheraga, A. Woodward, "Climate Change and Human Health", WMO. WHO. UNEP. 2003.
  • "Methods of assessing human health vulnerability and pubblic health adaptation to climate change", WHO. Health Canada. Santè Canada, UNEP, 2003.
  • Istituto Superiore di Sanità. "Indagine Epidemiologica sulla Mortalità Estiva", 2003.
  • "Heat Waves: risks and responces", WHO. DWD. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. EESD. 2004.
  • WHO."Extreme weather and climate events and public health responses", 2004.
  • S. Barbieri. "Mal di Tempo", Mursia Editore, 2004.
  • WHO."Heat Waves, risk and responses", 2004.
  • WHO."Using climate to predict infectious disease epidemics", 2005.
  • Climate Change: Impact, vulnerabilities and adaptation, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 2007;
  • G. Agostini, M. Pinna, S. Pinna, F. Russo, "Bioclimatologia umana", UTET, 2005.
  • A. Brugnoli, E.Minelli, U. Solimene. "Meteoropatie", Riza Scienze, 2005.
  • A.M. Bargagli, P. Michelozzi. "Clima e Salute", Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, 2011.
  • Atlas of  health and climate,  World Health Organization and World Meteorological Organization, 2012.